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Beyond AT&T 24 Meg: 100 is Ready To Go
Wednesday, 09 December 2009 23:27
Randall_Clyburn_Cohen_HollisRandall Stephenson has 1.5M BellSouth lines ready to upgrade to 100 megabit. Because BellSouth ran fiber to the curb years, It would probably be cheaper to give these homes 100 megabits than to provide 25 meg U-Verse. The 100 meg service was announced and ready to go before the merger but killed after. I was told AT&T killed the project because they "wanted a uniform product." They thought the other customers would be angry if they couldn't get the same speed. That's also why AT&T still won't sell 40 and 50 megabits to the many U-Verse customers close enough to get the higher speeds. U-Verse is designed for rock solid 25 megabits for all. Many, probably the majority can get 40 or 40 megabits.

Ralph de la Vega, an old BellSouth DSL guy, now runs AT&T and realizes people want speed. Over a year ago, he said at Om Malik's conference he would sell the full 25 meg of U-Verse to customers if they didn't want AT&T's TV package. He's now come through and usually customers will be able to get TV as well if they want it. Bill Smith at the FCC Tuesday talked about some neat tricks to high speeds on data when the house isn't watching 3 HD programs at the same time.

Randall Stephenson years ago asked me "Why would anyone ever need more than 24 megabits?"

Last Updated on Thursday, 10 December 2009 01:18
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The Right Questions: Is the broadband stimulus a success or failure?
Wednesday, 09 December 2009 05:30
Biden_Obama1) How many more unserved homes will this reach? 2) How many jobs will be directly created? NTIA/RUS are about to release the first of $7.2B in grants for broadband. These have been put off for months because of problems. Is the money being spent sensibly? Fortunately, the goals of the stimulus are clear.

Goal One Jobs: Blair Levin when the stimulus was drafted explained the primary goal was "directly creating jobs." That's the key number, because there are so many different ways to estimate indirectly created jobs any figure for indirect jobs is arbitrary. Columbia Professor Raoul Katz presented an important paper showing that the effect of broadband spending could range from a large number of jobs indirectly created to an actual negative number. You might actually reduce the local employment by buying from Amazon instead of local stores, taking classes over the net, etc.  The most important figure is therefore the "directly created jobs" to allow an independent judgment of which multiplier is right to apply.

Goal Two: Reaching unserved homes. Remember that the term "underserved" is an arbitrary one for funding, not related to the actual service available. Reaching those "unserved" is the President's promise.

The first projects announced failed miserably. Biden went down to Dawsonville, Georgia and said they couldn't get decent Internet connectivity. Turns out the whole town has DSL, T-1, and more. There's an OC3 just down the road from where he spoke, and I confirmed with Windstream they serve broadband to the company he said couldn't get decent service. Grant Gross of IDG writes that Impulse Manufacturing, where the VP spoke, is offered 12 megabits.

Nearly all the proposals are for overbuilding existing facilities, and nearly none likely to do much if anything for the "unserved." Painful to watch this go bad - most of the Obama people are friends. (

Last Updated on Saturday, 19 December 2009 21:54
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DSL 2013: Double and Triple Speeds Possible, Limited Deployment
Saturday, 05 December 2009 14:56
Claude_Shannon_sets_limitsJohn Cioffi amazed the FCC hearing with talk of 200 megabit bonded VDSL with DSM3, which one carrier believes will make fiber unnecessary. Infineon and ECI in Paris both demonstrated working DSM3, although field units are a few years away. Infineon and ECI in Paris. VDSL bonding is working according to carrier engineers testing it in the field. Over modest distances  like 1,000 feet  two pair can deliver 200 megabits without breaking Shannon's Law.

But rather few homes are likely to be offered more than today's 10-20 meg in the U.S. Few in Europe will be offered double speed bonding. DSM3 will come from the labs to practicality over the next few years and likely be standard on new DSLAMs. Few carriers will replace existing DSLAMs any time soon and it will probably be a decade before most homes are upgraded. Working technology doesn't mean anything if the carriers don't deploy it.

10-15% with marginal IPTV speeds are likely to be offered bonded service. AT&T almost certainly will use bonding offer TV to homes that can't get 25 megabits without it. That's typical of homes 3,000-5,000 feet from a U-Verse DSLAM. There may be as many as 10M homes that need bonding to receive U-Verse, three or four times as many as the first U-Verse planners expected. DT and others offering HD TV will probably do similar although for fewer homes.

Virtually no carriers today have plans to offer bonding except to bring distant homes to 20-30 meg for HD TV.
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Thoughtful Opposition to Net Neutrality
Tuesday, 01 December 2009 15:29
Larry Spiwak and his colleague George Ford often go a little deeper than other D.C. pundits.  On net neutrality, they ask whether government can run it well. "ReasonaLarry Spiwakble network management" if done sensibly eliminates just about all the serious objections. But will it be done sensibly? Folks including technologists Dave Clark and Dave Farber think if government gets involved, things will get mucked up. I'm more worried about corporate control, but know that regulation isn't perfect either. From Larry's testimony at the the New York City Council hearing:

"Those familiar with communications policy realize that the practice of regulation is imperfect. No intervention is exempt from the ugliness, no matter who is in charge. There is neither person nor computer smart enough to properly address all the relevant margins to an intervention, and the final set of rules and regulations are certain to be smothered in political ideology.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 09 December 2009 22:49
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Comcast & Cable Clobber U.S. DSL/Fiber
Friday, 13 November 2009 18:36
Comcast added 362K subs in Q3 compared to less than 300K for all DSL and fiber. The major cablecos added 654K to reach 38,659,067. The telcos added 256K total to 32,153,331. Overall, wireline broadband was up 910K to 70,812,000 (plus several million at smaller companies.) Verizon dropped an astonishing 135K DSL lines, only some of which were FiOS switches. AT&T U-Verse added 252K while older DSL dropped 162K.

Take out 198K FiOS adds, and DSL is under 100K. Outside of U-Verse, there was a net drop of 150K or so DSL customers. That's a recession,

Here are figures from Leichtman Research, covering well over 90% of U.S. wireline.

Last Updated on Monday, 16 November 2009 03:03
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De la Vega on U-Verse and LTE
Thursday, 29 October 2009 21:54
AT&T financials report 162K traditional DSL subscribers lost Q3, while adding 252K to U-Verse. T's overall wireline revenues were down 7% over the prior year, although they fired enough people to keep margins similar. T did report one important milestone: across U-Verse areas marketed for 24 months or more, overall penetration now exceeds 20 percent. That proves that U-Verse TV can compete against cable, something that was long in doubt. Microsoft's IPTV system is doing remarkably well, with many compliments on the interface quality.obstacles_welcome

Flash: I just got my review copy of Ralph de la Vega's book, Obstacles Welcome. An easy read and an amazing story, it's only $16.49 at Amazon. At that price, it's a no-brainer for everyone in the industry to grab a copy.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 03 November 2009 12:00
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VDSL Doubling Works
Friday, 23 October 2009 18:16
Infineon_VDSLThe speed fell from ~ 50 megabits to ~25 megabits when Chris Quonoey pulled one of the two lines connected to the new bonded VDSL2 modem from Nokia Siemens Networks. Then he plugged it back in and a few seconds later the speed went back up. Behind the door he showed me two spools of wire connected to two DSLAM-like ports. Zyxel's David Thompson had similar to show in the company hotel room. An engineer I trust is testing bonded modems in the field and tells me they are fine, although the price is currently too high.

Nearly every DSL connection that is 25 megabits or less can now be doubled in speed for less than $200 and typically less than $1/month in bandwidth. ASSIA's John Cioffi believes that will provide interesting competition for DOCSIS 3.0, especially as DSM provides further gains.The cablecos haven't yet deployed 3.0 upstream, although Tony Werner at Comcast tells me he intends to move aggressively in 2010 with upstream.

NSN's list price for bonded VDSL2 today is ~$90, but the customers for this are so large they'll probably pay less. ADSL bonding is significantly cheaper and already in production use. I've previously reported the carriers expect rapid price declines.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 28 October 2009 23:37
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Billion Dollar Journalist Departs
Wednesday, 09 December 2009 13:53
SaulHansellPhotoSaul Hansell, who played a pivotal role in preventing a billion dollar giveaway to Verizon in the stimulus, has taken the NY Times buyout. Buried in the Senate version of the bill was a 20% tax credit for fiber. Nearly all the money would have gone to Verizon because there are no other large fiber builds in the U.S. even if they did not add a single incremental job or line of fiber.

I had just learned from Verizon it was impractical for them to rapidly increase the FiOS buildout beyond the 3M lines they had already planned during the stimulus. I confirmed that under the terms of the Senate Finance Committee bill they would collect over $1B for what they were doing anyway without a penny of government money. (Bravo for building FiOS, incidentally.) I wrote the story, but was told the fix was in.

Saul double checked with John Hodulik, the best analyst on Wall Street, and Jessica Zufolo, then not yet in the administration. Saul put the NY Times behind the story. I hear they tried to change the formula to only provide the credit for additional construction, but in the mad dash to pass the $700B deal, that didn't work out. To my surprise, the House-Senate conference killed it.

I confirmed with one of the principals that Saul's story was crucial.

Last Updated on Monday, 14 December 2009 18:04
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The Right Questions: FCC Traffic Workshop December 8
Tuesday, 08 December 2009 07:34
Net Neutrality battles in D.C. are getting brutal, so the Bells are bringing out their best. Bill Smith will be on the hotspot, AT&T CEO Whitacre told the Senate they have essentially no congestion on their network. AT&T lobbyists and paid advocates are all over D.C. recently saying the opposite.

The extraordinary panel can shed light on many other crucial technical topics. They've asked us all to send in questions during the webcast http://www.openinternet.gov and I've put some together. Tom Sawanobori is the strategist for Verizon Wireless, where LTE looks to be one of the best networks in the world. Paul Liao is the new head of CableLabs, where they developed DOCSIS 3.0. That's rapidly bringing 50 megabits down to 90% of the U.S., with upstream soon to follow.  Cisco and two academics round out the panel.

kc claffy  has spent a decade analyzing Internet traffic at the University of California. She points out why this session is so important. "our scientific knowledge about the Internet is weak because researchers are typically not allowed access to any data on operational network infrastructure."

Ask her "What are the three or four most important points of data we need?"

Scott Jordan, also University of California, has just written "How to determine whether a traffic management practice is reasonable." It reads like an academic paper, but has sensible conclusions.

  • Traffic management is reasonable if the end users can decide what gets priority. If I want to prioritize my VOIP call over a movie download, that's fine. In particular, I think almost all of us would ask our ISPs to block worms and malware, DDOS, and the like.
  • Traffic management is likely unreasonable if the carrier decides which application or service gets priority. If it's unreasonably anti-competitive, causes undue harm to consumers, or unreasonably impairs free speech, that's not right.
Last Updated on Sunday, 13 December 2009 23:08
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200 New Exchanges as Tiscali Revitalizes
Saturday, 05 December 2009 02:29
tiscaliTiscali is installing UTStarcom DSLAMs in 200 more Italian exchanges, Ray Le Maistre reports. Good to see them coming back; Italy has weak competition and generally high prices. Founder Renato Soru was worth $4B in 2001 when Tiscali was one of Europe's largest ISPs. All that's left is 600,000 Italian customers, about two-thirds in their 486 unbundled exchanges. Most of the new exchanges will start out with more than one hundred customers and the savings from unbundling should pay back the investment in months.

Tiscali is a prime example of how smaller ISP mostly are being forced from the market. Between 2005 and 2007, Tiscali sold off branches in Austria, South Africa, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Denmark, France and Germany as the company bled cash.

Last Updated on Saturday, 05 December 2009 17:57
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Lantiq: Our New Chips Take Half the Power
Tuesday, 01 December 2009 01:03

"What are you most excited about?" I asked Christian Wolff. He's now CEO of Lantiq after Infineon sold the division to investors Golden Gate. Wolff's an engineer, so I shouldn't have been surprised his answer was about the chips themselves, not the company challengeschristian_wolff_sm. He's designing in 65 nanometer, which requires less than half as much power for given functionality. Lantiq promises the chip complies with the most stringent requirements of European Union Code of Conduct (EU CoC) for energy consumption of broadband equipment. Small chips, Lantiq hopes, will stimulate  innovative designs.

The first new chip, soon come, is the XWAY™ VRX200, 100 meg down with a Gigabit Switch fabric configurable as two Gigabit or four Fast Ethernet ports. It's designed to the preliminary 802.3az "Energy Efficient Ethernet" spec as well. When similar low power technology is applied to the DSLAM side, street cabinets will be able to eliminate the noisy fans and often be powered over existing copper pair for a big saving.

All 900 employees still have their jobs (hooray) as the company was already running lean. They are in good financial shape, with no debt.

Last Updated on Monday, 18 October 2010 22:40
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Hong Kong: US$13 100 up, 100 down
Wednesday, 04 November 2009 05:58
HKBN_William_Yeung_sportscarNiQ Lai of City Telecom charges $13 for 100 megabits up and down and has great ads featuring a Lamborghini. They offer an 80% speed guarantee for non-international traffic, or 2x your money back. They have no cap or major hidden charges. Similar costs $99 in the U.S., $45 in Britain, and something like $20 in France as part of a bundle, and rarely includes upstream.

With five wired carriers in most HK buildings, they have to be aggressive to gain market share. It's a real standalone offer, although you can add voice ($9) and IPTV ($17) for a triple play under $40. They are profitable with little debt, and have set a "Big Hairy Audacious Goal to become the largest IP service provider in Hong Kong by 2016."

"We make Lamborghini 'SuperCar' class broadband available at mass market prices," Lai writes. The one significant limit is they provision only 20 meg per home of International bandwidth. New customers pay installation of US$39 but no equipment charge. The picture is CEO William Leung with a symbol of the speed of his network.

Last Updated on Sunday, 15 November 2009 15:23
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Goodbye, Chips By Aware
Wednesday, 28 October 2009 17:39
aware_logo

Since 1993 – almost the beginning – Aware in Bedford, Massachusetts has been a key stop for anyone designing DSL chips. They were a contract shop that jumped into DSL and soon developed a chip with Analog Devices that sold in the millions. They built a strong relationship with Infineon as well. Intel invested $millions in developing DSL chips working with Aware but never brought them to market, and half a dozen other companies licensed Aware designs.

They were the model “intellectual property” shop, IPO'd very successfully, and were briefly a stock market darling when “DSL was the next big thing.” Loaded with PhD's, they played a crucial role in both the industry and standards. Peter LeBlanc was a leader in the DSL Forum and ubiquitous at industry events and Marcos Tzannes helped drive multiple generations of DSL standards in the ITU. Both are staying with Aware.

Last Updated on Thursday, 29 October 2009 13:12
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Newsbreak: AT&T CTO Donovan: We Need Non-Discrimination
Wednesday, 21 October 2009 13:10
"Outside applications need to be on an equal footing with our own applications," John Donovan said at a SUPERCOMM keynote here in Chicago. "My jaw dropped," one of his John_Donovancolleagues told me a few minutes later, because this is a reversal of AT&T's long-standing position they needed to be able to favor their own applications. AT&T D.C. needs to listen closely to their own CTO, because they are throwing everything they have in D.C. at preventing "non-discrimination" being included in the FCC Net Neutrality regulations.

Apps are critical to the success of the iPhone, which "is transforming AT&T's entire network and business," again according to a colleague. He knows that the (mostly) open platform of the iPhone is necessary to give  iPhone apps access, which in turn is crucial to the success of AT&T wireless. Donovan suggests that a similar openess will make a dramatic difference across the business. If they discriminate in favor of their own video, games, or whatever comes next, developers will be hard to attract.

John is still new to AT&T, and clearly is "thinking different." His handlers apparently forgot to tell him what not to say, so he explained AT&T's strategy straight, not filtered through his (extremely effective) D.C. lobbbyists.

Last Updated on Sunday, 25 October 2009 20:42
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The Right Questions: Is the broadband plan a success or failure?
Wednesday, 09 December 2009 05:30

julius_genachowski1) How many more homes will be reached because of the broadband plan. 2) How much will prices go up or down after the plan changes are implemented. Two simple measures of results.

There will be infinite noise about how wonderful the broadband plan is; reporters will have to work hard to determine if, as I.F. Stone taught us, "governments always lie." Fortunately, the goals of the plan are clear and any competent reporter can easily determine whether they are being achieved.

Goal One Availability: Obama during the campaign promised to make broadband available to everyone.  At the time, Obama advisers thought there was a substantial percentage of homes "unserved", with one estimate at 20%. That was three to five times as much as the real figure, as the FCC September report demonstrated.  Reaching the 3-6% "unserved" remains the primary goal.

First question to ask: how many of the "unserved" will the U.S. reach without the broadband plan?

Second question: how many more will the U.S. reach as the likely result of the broadband plan?

My guess at an answer: very little impact, unfortunately. If Julius ducks the question - almost guaranteed - the way to come to an answer is to look at the "unserved" areas and determine whether the proposals in the plan will have a big impact. Not trivial, but the information is out there.

Goal Two Affordability:  Nothing affects takeup more than the cost of broadband and computers. There's been an incredible amount of noise about other means of "demand stimulation" but when the experts look at the data they show little if any affect. Last week in D.C., I asked several experts if they had seen any evidence that factors other than price made a difference in broadband takeup; none had solid examples. "Talking up broadband" seems particularly useless after the data from the strongest proponent,  Connect Kentucky, fell apart. It turns out that Kentucky had less than the national average increase in broadband takeup during their campaign, when the availability of broadband was examined. Broadband availability went from 60% to 95%, more than enough to explain the results. I'd guess training and support would have a modest impact, but that simply isn't in the data so far.

First question: How much will the price of broadband for working and middle class families go up or down?

Second question:  How many more families will take broadband because of any subsidies included?

My guess at an answer: The price of broadband for most families will go up, not down. That amazing result comes from the probable inclusion of a "broadband tax" (USF) that will be far greater than any subsidies or reductions for the poor (lifeline). If current 15% USF were applied to broadband, that's $5-6B/year. The lifeline subsidy under consideration is less than a tenth of that. Because in practice lifeline reaches only a small fraction of the poor, the USF increase will probably have more impact even on the poor than any lifeline subsidy.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 16 December 2009 09:42
 
Bill Smith & The End of The Traffic Shaping debate
Tuesday, 08 December 2009 05:40
bill_smithBill Smith, one of the best engineers in the world, Dec 8, is answering FCC  questions. (Update: Bill promised to get back with an answer.) If Bill in detail explains that minimizing congestion on a network like U-Verse is impractically expensive, I will change my position. Opposition to reasonable traffic shaping would fall away rapidly if a truly high cost is confirmed.

If Bill does say U-Verse has such extreme congestion problems, it would suggest his CEO, Ed Whitacre, repeatedly lied about AT&T's network to a Senate committee. CEOs do sometimes say untrue things. Maybe Big Ed, an engineer, didn't understand the basics of his own network. It would also mean AT&T's network is drastically inferior to Verizon's. Verizon CTO Dick Lynch three weeks ago told an FCC workshop congestion was under control. If Bill doesn't say the congestion problems are extreme, he could tear the heart out of his company's lobbying.

I predict Bill will do his best to duck the real questions, but I'll be glued to the webcast at http://www.openinternet.gov

Bill might say it is impractically expensive to upgrade U-Verse because the congestion problems are so challenging. If Bill confirms such a high cost for a network like U-Verse or FiOS - say 10% of AT&T's $30 typical price, or $3 - even I would change my own position. I'd endorse sensible traffic shaping to prevent a big price hike. The CEO might have have been wrong in his testimony. Bill might say instead that U-Verse has modest or minimal congestion. like Verizon and most large DSL networks. If the current network has only modest congestion, the cost to upgrade to essentially neutral wouldn't be more that 1-2% of the bill, a few dimes or less. AT&T CEO Ed Whitacre told the U.S. Senate AT&T simply didn't have a congestion problem. "Our network does not degrade traffic. We don't block anything."
Last Updated on Sunday, 13 December 2009 23:03
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20 & 30 Euro Triple Play: What the Eff?
Wednesday, 02 December 2009 00:06

Numericable_square"Jubilation!" proclaimed Les Echos, as French prices dropped. "What the eff?" came the note from Washington. "How can Numericable in France sell 30 meg cable service for 14,90 and 100 meg DOCSIS + a phone package for 19,90? Or a triple play for 20-32 euro? Something has to be wrong here." U.S. prices are generally two and three times as high, so he couldn't understand.

"Competition can work," was my quick answer. 30-32 euro was the standard French price for a decent triple play since 2002. Bouygues, the #3 wireless carrier, has jumped in and gained more than 100K customers in the quarter. They offer quadplay, including wireless, for 44 euro.

Numericable has solved most of the operational problems, is broke and needs more customers fast.  So they began the price cuts. Pacesetter Xavier Niel responded by offering a robust triple play for 19,90,

Last Updated on Saturday, 05 December 2009 12:16
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Telmex: 403K Quarter, 2M Year, 6.4M total
Monday, 16 November 2009 23:46
Mexico_parque_la_venta_by_magnusvkGood growth, finally, in Mexico, with a third more net adds than the U.S. adjusted for population. Prices have been high in relation to income, given per capita a third of that on average as the U.S.. Measured by Gini coefficient, Mexico's inequality is very high (46,) similar to the U.S. (45) but much higher than France and Germany (28) or Britain (34.)

Part of Telmex's success is installment sales of 2.3M computers, with brand name laptops currently available from 100 pesos/month (US$8.) Telmex tells investors, “the service has to be affordable to succeed in appealing to large numbers of users. An important component of expanding the broadband market is to make sure that customers have access to computers.” A customer can “walk out of a TELMEX store with the computer in hand, online service arranged, and monthly cost set.”

This highlights what Brian David of the U.S. broadband plan emphasized: poor people often can't afford the computer even when they can pay for the broadband connection. He put that as one of the highest priorities. Folks making $100,000 often forget that coming up with hundreds of dollars up front is often as great an obstacle as the cost over time.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 17 November 2009 00:03
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Why all Telecom Marketing and Product management is wrong
Friday, 30 October 2009 00:47
Rudolf van der Berg looks at what made Xavier Niel a billionaire and suggests copying Free.fr's simple model. Xavi's 30 euro all-included triple play won 5M customers from France Telecom and made him virtually a folk hero. One price, great value, simple operation. Forget all the marketing finesse, market segmentation, and the other techniques to squeeze your customer. Build modern, all-IP networks that bring down the cost. The presentation is after the break
Last Updated on Saturday, 07 November 2009 20:39
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Net Neutrality: La Guerre est Finie?
Sunday, 25 October 2009 00:48

Article withdrawn. AT&T explained to me afterwards their comments did not extend to video, which they want to carve out as "managed services." Video is most of the issue, so my original story is seriously off-base.

The war over FCC Net Neutrality rules is ready to resolve, key players tell me. AT&T SVP Jim Cicconi emails me "we'd not unreasonably discriminate (i.e. prioritize) if it caused material harm to consumers or had an anti-competitive impact." I believe honoring that promise would prohibit nearly all the practices consumer advocates fear. As a practical matter, AT&T's crucCicconi_laughingial application - U-Verse TV - requires that essentially every bit gets through quickly and without degradation. Any network built to that standard is effectively neutral in 2009. It would clearly be anti-competitive if other video programming didn't get through with similar minimal latency and minimal packet loss. AT&T is also offering video on wireless, setting a standard there as well, perhaps at a lower throughput.

I can't think of any application except high-definition video conferencing and perhaps long distance brain surgery that requires better Internet performance than AT&T is promising the FCC in these comments. Even standard-def video conferencing wouldn't be affected, while HD would probably be fine as well. Honestly living up to the standard of not prioritizing if it's anti-competitive is essentially accepting the fifth principle of NN. It's a polite way for AT&T to claim "we won our principle" and move on to other issues.

Last Updated on Monday, 26 October 2009 20:30
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Verizon, AT&T's Enron Guy Headed to Jail
Tuesday, 29 September 2009 21:43
att_logo-no-textverizon_logoBecause he lied to Wall Street, Joseph Hirko, co-CEO of Enron Broadband Services, will go to jail for 16 months and pay $8.2M in fines. Verizon and SBC (now AT&T) were the crucial Enron partners in a claimed multi-billion dollar deal for TV over DSL. When Enron fell apart and the truth came out, Verizon eased out a Group President who was closely identified with the deal. No one at the telcos was ever indicted nor were they sued for fraud as part of the Enron litigation.They dodged a bullet.

Enron claimed their BOS was an “intelligent” operating system and was described as, among other things, a standard protocol for accessing real-time bandwidth. The prosecuter claims Enron falsely represented the status of the BOS and implied that it was already embedded and functioning as a part of Enron’s network. The BOS “allows application developers to dynamically provision bandwidth on demand for the end-to-end quality of service necessary to deliver broadband content.”

Hirko acknowledged the BOS could not

Last Updated on Tuesday, 29 September 2009 21:57
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